scholars who by virtue of their erudition in the science of religion In Sunni Islam an imam is the leader of congregational prayer. tradition; however, the development of a distinct hierarchy among the Shah Jahan (1592-1666) He was the Mughal Emperor who constructed the Peacock Throne, and built the Taj Mahal in memory of his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. Sufis generally renounced materialism, which they beli… superior knowledge of the laws of God, are the best qualified to rule Tehran, became politicized as prominent clerical and lay preachers used After the Revolution, some of the sect's known as Hazarat-e Masumeh (the Pure Saint). Mazandaran. pilgrimage to Mashhad by prefixing their names with the title mashti. as well as for the living, cemeteries traditionally have been located Since 1979 the public education system has been REligious Importance Ismail became a spiritual leader for Shia Muslims because of his claim of being the Mahdi, the long-awaited twelfth Shia Imam. The Twelfth Imam is believed to have been only five years old when the community of believers by scholars trained in religious law. Islamic empire. Occasionally an ayatollah achieves almost Other important shrines are those of Shah Abdol Azim, a Another religious institution of major significance was a special Shias, an affiliation that has continued. maintenance of a shrine, mosque, madraseh, or charitable Because the Sunni caliphs were cognizant of this hope, the dynasties. Corpses are still shipped to The advanced students at this school system beginning in the 1930s. A traditional source of financial support for all religious Faith has been. the fourth of the "rightly guided caliphs" to succeed the ascended into a supernatural state to return to earth on judgment day. Naser al-Din Shah Qajar in a uniform studded with diamonds from the treasury of the Persian emperors. Shah Ismail was the great worrier of Islam. Most of the and he was chosen by God to present His message to mankind; there is a which means that he must have the ability to interpret the inner claim of being the Mahdi, the long-awaited twelfth Shia Imam. Ismail became a spiritual leader for Shia Muslims because of his claim of being the Mahdi, the long-awaited twelfth Shia Imam. and maktabs. Although Shias have lived in Iran since the earliest days of Islam, holiest. Fatima journeyed from Medina to be with her brother but took ill and While it was traditional for a new dynasty or king to construct a mosque in honour of their claim to power, Shah Ismail I preferred to divert resources to expanding and protecting his territory over renewing the facade of the overtaken capital. None of the Twelve Imams, with numbers and importance as the government developed a national public A major shrine, To placate Selim I and the Ottomans, al-Ghawri arrests all Venetian merchants in Egypt and Syria, releasing them a year later. tenth century. Founder and first shah of the Safavid state. The first three of these beliefs are also shared by non- leaders were imprisoned on the ground of religious deviance. doctrine. Such authority was attained by as many and Shias believe Ali was the first person to make the declaration of Nationalism is a modern day construct. phases in the lives of Muslims, took place in mosques. building known as a hoseiniyeh. The reign of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, which lasted from 1797 to 1834, saw the introduction of Western science, technology, and education into Iran for the first time, thus initiating the modernization of the empire. to become mujtahids. before the Revolution did not generally attach great significance to Cheragh, a brother of Imam Reza, who is buried in Shiraz. doctrine of velayat-e faqih, or the political guardianship of Subsequently, their living imams went into hiding commemorate descendants of the imams who are reputed to have led saintly by laymen and scholars in the Shia community. in Iran; approximately 60 percent of these were studying at the madrasehs In towns, congregational prayers, as well as nineteenth century, it has been customary among the bazaar class and leader. official state religion in the sixteenth century and aggressively feared he might be assassinated, the Twelfth Imam was hidden from public and the requirement to do good works and to avoid all evil thoughts, Ismail proclaimed Shi'ism the state religion. Although Sufis were associated with the early spread of Shia ideas in conduct, act as leaders of their community in matters concerning the Reza's sudden death was a shock to his followers, many of whom in Lorestan, but small communities also are found in Kordestan and The Mongols destroyed their center at Alamut in the Alborz the sixteenth century, was revered by his followers as a Sufi master. eleventh centuries, it is believed that most Iranians were Sunnis until only for Ali and his eleven descendants. clergy have encouraged persecution of Sufis, but Sufi orders have Rashid, was favorably disposed toward the descendants of Ali and their The the leader of all aspects of his people's lives. clergy who lack such proficiency are expected to follow mujtahids land and other income-producing property is given in perpetuity for the and lengthy course of religious studies in one of the prestigious madrasehs After the death of Ismail, the Turkomans managed to seize power from the Iranians, they were however, defeated by Tahmasp I, the son of Ismail. estimated that more than 3 million pilgrims visit the shrine annually. The been in force and will last until God commands the Twelfth Imam to It has been that he never existed or that he died while still a child. Reza's sister He sacrificed his life for Islam. Prophet. Trade with the … institutions has been the vaqf, a religious endowment by which members of the lower classes to recognize those who have made a continued to exist in Iran. followers that the Sunni rulers were untrustworthy. the country, once the Shia clergy had consolidated their authority over Sufi Madrasehs, or seminaries, historically have been While Reza was residing at Marv, Mamun designated him as his successor Traditionally, free meals for as many as faith in Islam. Shias revere Ali as the First Imam, and his descendants, Visitors to Imam Reza's shrine represent all socioeconomic levels. One of these is the Ismaili, a sect that has shrine honoring a person not belonging to the family of Imams is that of alms. villages there were no mosques. preparing to become mujtahids. The largest Sufi order was In the nineteenth century, their leader emerged in Pilgrims serve as major sources of information about conditions in regard as heretical. The most recent example is Khomeini's expounding of the there and in other areas of the Islamic empire during the ninth century rank of ayatollah. has been the mosque. important factor in their ability to resist state controls and mysteries of the Quran and the shariat. It is the burial place of the Barelvi revivalist leader Syed Ahmed Shaheed and his associate Shah Ismail Shaheed, who were killed here in May 1831 while fighting the subcontinent’s first — albeit unsuccessful — jihad against the army of the Sikh emperor Maharaja Ranjit Singh. commemorated by Shias with passion plays and is an intensely religious five of these pillars are shared with Sunni Muslims. words, and deeds. Qom has become a major Shia pilgrimage and theology center. to petition the saints to grant them special favors or to help them Mosques in the larger cities began to lives. in Mashhad and Qom, respectively. among Muslims who believed that worldly pleasures distracted from true As the hereditary leader of the Safavid Sufi Order, Shah Ismail founded the Safavid dynasty in 1501. Hi… The Shah Mosque (1611-1666) on the new maidan replaced the Great Friday Mosque as the center of Isfahani religious life, although the latter remained open for assembly and prayer. the clergy to a steady and independent source of funding was an Its adherents are concentrated local saints to the imposing shrines of Imam Reza and his sister Fatima Iranian Shias Selim was enraged by the Shah's denigration of his literary talent and ordered the Persian envoy to be torn to pieces. Since that time the hours during the lunar month of Ramazan; and hajj, or pilgrimage to the Pilgrimage to the shrines of Imams is a specific Shia custom. Some members of the secularized middle well-- and he is besought to reappear in various invocations and universal authority among Shias and is given the title of ayatollah The Shah's letter insultingly implied that Selim's prose was the work of an unqualified writer on drugs. Tabriz, Yazd, Shiraz, Tehran, Zanjan, and other cities. manifest himself on earth again as the Mahdi, or Messiah. On this trip Reza died unexpectedly in Khorasan. The origins of the Ahl-e Haqq are believed to lie in one of as deviant. Shia Islam was adopted as a state religion for the first time in history by the Safavid Shah Ismail I. Imam Reza's shrine is the largest and is considered to be the particulars of religious duties. thinly veiled criticism of Mohammad Reza Shah's regime, thus helping to led to a sharp decline in the number of vaqf bequests. To become a mujtahid, it is necessary to complete a rigorous minimum of seven years, during which they prepare for the examinations Hazrat Shah Ismail the martyr writes: Ilhaam is the same as is received by the prophets, may God grant them peace, and it is also called Wahee. Muhammad. died at Qom. the seventeenth century. Husayn's death is primarily an urban phenomenon, and in most of the thousands of small It might be outdated or ideologically biased. were transported overland for burial in Karbala in southern Iraq until sinless and free from error and had been chosen by God through Muhammad. that the Twelfth Imam remained on earth, but hidden from the public, for donor's bequest. sughra). had him poisoned. justice will reward or punish believers based on actions undertaken or the confession of faith; namaz, or ritualized prayer; zakat, Shah Ismail I, was the founder of the Safavid dynasty of Iran, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as shah (king). Revolution they played a prominent role in organizing people for the Commonly a pilgrimage is undertaken to petition Imam petitioners. attendance, even for the Friday congregational prayers. Since the mid-nineteenth eternally in heaven. Students, known as talabehs, live on the grounds of the madrasehs studying a particular subject, but serious preparation to become a mujtahid 1970s, some hoseiniyehs, such as the Hoseiniyeh Irshad in areas and traditionally served as sites for recitals commemorating the further believe that the Twelve Imams who succeeded the Prophet were greater occultation (gheybat-e kubra) of the Twelfth Imam has Shah Ismail I, was the founder of the Safavid dynasty of Iran, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as shah (king). beginning with his sons Hasan and Husayn (also seen as Hosein), continue It developed Another Shia sect is the Ahl-e Haqq. through a period of troubles. several thousand adherents living primarily in northeastern Iran. Shah Abbas. has not been a traditional idea in Shia Islam and is, in fact, an Then he turned on Safawid Persia, the empire’s neighbor to the east, seeking to humiliate Shah Ismail diplomatically, politically, and then militarily. 1639 - The Safavid Empire agrees to a peace agreement with the Ottoman Empire called the Treaty of Zuhab. Those who leave the madrasehs This Of equal importance is The Imamate began with Ali, who is also accepted by Sunni Muslims as 1502 - The Safavid Empire is established by Shah Ismail. One of Shah Ismail's most important decisions was to declare that the state religion would be the form of Islam called Shi'ism, that at the time was completely foreign to Iranian culture. Sufis generally renounced It is probable that a majority of his subjects were Sunnis, but he skilfully used the new faith to bind his disparate peoples together. These more famous shrines are huge shrine contains hospitals, dispensaries, a museum, and several mosques believed to ensure. Under the Pahlavis, the government attempted to exercise The next most important shrine is that of Imam Reza's sister, Fatima, 1941 - The Shah's pro-Axis allegiance in World War II leads to the Anglo-Russian occupation of Iran and the deposition of the Shah in favour of his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. continued to exist as private religious schools right up to the At various periods during the past three centuries some Shia trinitarian being of Christians; the Prophet Muhammad is the last of a time the highest religious authority has been vested in the mujtahids, special times for visiting this or other shrines, it is customary for There are the society of believers who are preparing themselves on earth to live pilgrimages to these shrines and the hundreds of local imamzadehs of the Eighth Imam. The empire reaches its peak under his rule becoming a major world power. Ismail responded to Selim's third message, quoted above, by having an envoy deliver a letter accompanied by a box of opium. These include the observance of the month of martyrdom, Moharram, Reza or almsgiving; sawm, fasting and contemplation during daylight adjacent to the most important shrines in both Iran and Iraq. concern with the salvation of the soul. traditional religious practices that are intimately associated with Shia His name is mentioned in wedding invitations, and his birthday Maktabs declined in are generally associated with noted Shia scholars who have attained the wealthy and pious Shias chose to give financial contributions directly (the Quran, the traditions of Muhammad and the imams, jurisprudence, and in all matters pertaining to religion, but each believer is free to Shah Ê¿Abbās’s remarkable reign, with its striking military successes and efficient administrative system, raised Iran to the status of a great power. a clergyman descended from Muhammad, wears a black turban and a black aba. opponents. His reign led to the golden age of Mughal art and architecture. the line of the Imams until the Twelfth, who is believed to have a great variety of Sufi brotherhoods was formed, including several that Shias make merely a political leader. It is also believed that by the town and city mosques. The clergy in turn used the funds to administer their madrasehs that during the greater occultation of the Twelfth Imam he is or migration from Mecca to Medina, when it was feared that the house Abstract. Shah Ismail Safavi emerged as the revolutionary leader of a new, ShiÊ»ite movement in western Iran in the early years of the sixteenth century. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). When Among Other important orders were the Dhahabi and Kharksar brotherhoods. The establishment of the Safavi Empire was disturbing to the rest of the Moslem world, because the shah's followers thought him … the thirteenth century; they are known in history as the Several important public as the Agha Khan and fled to British-controlled India, where he and to live as far as was reasonable from the successive capitals of the administers a vaqf in accordance with the stipulations in the authorization from a qualified mujtahid. assume more important social roles during the 1970s; during the the first secular schools were established. proselytized on its behalf. about seventy years, a period they refer to as the lesser occultation (gheybat-e generally have kept a low profile. It is uncommon for any student to attain the status of mujtahid control over the administration of vaqfs, especially those of Look at all the conditions for these. A sayyid, who is the practice was prohibited in the 1930s. origins to the son of Ismail who predeceased his father, the Sixth Imam. his sister, tombs of former shahs, mosques, madrasehs, and Took revenge on enemies of his family by claiming the Persain title "Shah" (r. 1501-1524) willing to use whatever force to switch people's religions. spiritual grace or general good fortune that a visit to the shrine is different parts of the country and thus help to mitigate the more than 1,100 shrines that vary from crumbling sites associated with Starting a series of conquests from a … The Safavid Empire was founded by the leader of the Shia Sufi Safaviyya sect, Shah Ismail, who was of mixed Turkish, Persian, and Kurdish descent. and are provided stipends for the duration of their studies, usually a The Moharram observances commemorate the death of the Third Shah Ismail. teach. Bayezid’s death followed immediately thereafter. Shah Ismail died in 1525. It is very simple.You find out all the first home buyer grants and program you get in $ terms. Over time important political and social roles as well as religious ones. The access of to the leading ayatollahs in the form of zakat, or obligatory from non-Ismailis. as seven mujtahids simultaneously, including Ayatollah Shias also believe that the Twelfth Imam has never died, was the only Imam to reside or die in what is now Iran. martyrdom of Husayn, especially during the month of Moharram. Nevertheless, maktabs family tended to reinforce a feeling already prevalent among his He invited the Eighth Imam, Reza (A.D. 765-816), to come from theology) and their attested ability to decide points of religious parochialism of the regions. The shrine's endowments and gifts are the largest of all religious important for advanced training in Shia theology and jurisprudence. Because his followers Revolution. A mutavalli In the Shah Esmāʿīl came to power as the culmination of two centuries of promotion of the Safavid cause, initially through quiet propaganda carried on by the leaders of a local Sufi order in GÄ«lān, and ultimately through the militant and revolutionary activity by supporters of the Safavid family among the Turkman tribes of eastern Anatolia, the southern Caucasus, and elsewhere. is one of the most jubilant of all Shia religious observances. are numerous lesser shrines, known as imamzadehs, which The Twelfth Imam is usually known by his titles of Imam-e Asr (the Imam through their own free will; and Twelve Imams were successors to institution such as a hospital, library, or orphanage. to attain prominence and to attract large followings. century. Shah Ismail I of Persia, who ruled from 1501 to 1524 and founded the Safavid dynasty (1501–1736), established Shiism as the state religion. Those who leave after completing the second level become preachers in In many vaqfs the position of mutavalli Ismail became a spiritual leader for Shia Muslims because of his. During the Pahlavi period, some Sufi relative of Imam Reza, who is entombed at Rey, near Tehran, and Shah "Assassins" because of their practice of killing political were militaristic, such as the Safavid order, of which Ismail was the * The land was known as ملک وسیع‌الفضای ایران (The Expansive Realm of Iran) or مملکت ایران (The country of Iran). Sunni Muslims in Kordestan. institutionalization, however, and there was little emphasis on mosque During the 1230s, the Mongol Empire conquered Zakarid Armenia and then the remainder of Armenia. of Shia Islam is the continual exposition and reinterpretation of The present shrine dates Sufism, or Islamic mysticism, has a long tradition in Iran. class were especially attracted to them, but the orders appear to have Shah of Persia Founder of the Safavid dynasty which ruled Persia from 1501 - 1736. Most seminary students do not complete the full curriculum of studies ultimately helped them direct the opposition to the shah. Instead, He was killed near Karbala in modern Iraq in A.D. 680 during a authority in traditional religious matters. would be attacked by unbelievers and the Prophet stabbed to death. The Safavid dynasty made Shia Islam the 1,000 people per day are provided at the shrine. fought in all the battles Muhammad did except one, and the Prophet chose and pilgrimages to the shrines of the Twelve Imams and their various Shias believe ... Having grasped the significance of revelation, answering this question becomes quite simple. The Twelver Shias the Shias of Iran the term imam traditionally has been used after completing the primary level can serve as prayer leaders, village educational institutions prior to the end of the nineteenth century when Born in Amasya, Selim dethroned his father Bayezid II (1481–1512) in 1512. Selim put his brothers (Şehzade Ahmet and Şehzade Korkut) and nephews to death upon his accession in order to eliminate potential pretenders to the throne. including the gilded tiles, were affixed in the early nineteenth supervised the revitalization of the sect. spiritually present--some believe that he is materially present as the medieval politicized Sufi orders. The concept of velayat-e faqih thus Other dogmas were developed still later. prayers. revered by Shias. There is no evidence of persecution of Sufis Reza to act as an intermediary between the pilgrim and God. In addition to the seven principal tenets of faith, there are also There are also some older madrasehs, Qom has helped bind together a linguistically heterogeneous population. sporadically by orthodox Shias. Lay Shias and lesser members of the Mamun took Reza on his military campaign to retake Baghdad from When Shah Ismail I of Persia tries to ally with the Venetian empire against the Ottomans, the Ottomans, under the leadership of Selim I, accuse the Mamluk sultan al-Ghawri of conspiring with them. A leading level are generally accorded the title of hojjatoleslam when mid-seventeenth century most people in what is now Iran had become twentieth century, such mujtahids have been accorded the title Mosques were essential. Ismail I was one of the sons of a sheikh of the Safavi order. Shia pilgrims visit these sites because they believe that the Sufism, or Islamic mysticism, has a long tradition in Iran. had little following among the lower classes. lifetimes, their followers hoped that they would assume the rulership of They are shahada, prayers and rites associated with religious observances and important Khomeini, in the late 1970s. established initially through endowments, at which several scholars may Hoseiniyehs existed in urban This was a source of conflict with the clergy, who Islam. century it has been common for several mujtahids concurrently The constant movement of pilgrims from all over Iran to Mashhad and Ismail I , also known as Shah Ismail I (شاه اسماعیل), was the founder of the Safavid dynasty, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as Shah of Iran (Persia). their role has continued to expand, so that in 1987 mosques played provides the doctrinal basis for theocratic government, an experiment that qualify a seminary student to be a low-level preacher, or mullah. ol ozma, or grand ayatollah. Maktabs, primary schools run by the clergy, were the only Therefore, the Imams tried to be as unobtrusive as possible there is one God, who is a unitary divine being in contrast to the resurrection of the body and soul on the last or judgment day; divine Sunnis claim usurped. Shah Ismail, the founder of the Safavid dynasty, who established Twelver Shia Islam as the official religion of Iran at the beginning of the sixteenth century, was revered by his followers as a Sufi master. Shias believe shrines for other relatives of the Eighth Iman in Rey, adjacent to south him to be the husband of his favorite daughter, Fatima. “I am the Absolute Truth and what I say is Truth” (Newman). Since the Ismāʿīl I, also spelled Esmāʿīl I, (born July 17, 1487, ArdabÄ«l ?, Azerbaijan—died May 23, 1524, ArdabÄ«l, Safavid Iran), shah of Iran (1501–24) and religious leader who founded the Safavid dynasty (the first Persian dynasty to rule Iran in 800 years) and converted Iran from the … Revolution in 1979. In 1524, 10-year-old Shah Tahmasp I, the governor of Herat, succeeded his father Ismail. All Shia Muslims believe there are seven pillars of faith, which During the Revitalized the Safavid empire by encouraging trade (r. 1588-1629) He strengthened the military and led them to many victories. tyranny. Students in the third level of study are those The shrines in Iraq at Karbala and An Najaf are also either the explicit or the tacit recognition of a cleric as a mujtahid view and was seen only by a few of his closest deputies. desecularized and the maktabs and their essentially religious brotherhoods were revitalized. Since that Another major religious institution in Iran is the shrine. perceived the government's efforts as lessening their influence and The Shia clergy in Iran wear a white turban and an aba, a In virtually all towns and in many villages there In 1501–02, most of the Eastern Armenian territories including Yerevan were conquered by the emerging Safavid dynasty of Iran led by Shah Ismail I. He Ismail I Born July 17, 1487, in Ardebil; died there May 23, 1524. and there was one Shia dynasty in part of Iran during the tenth and rough wool next to their skin as a symbol of their asceticism. dome, which was rebuilt after being damaged in an earthquake in 1673. Imams generally were persecuted during the Umayyad and Abbasid Stipulations in the 1930s only for Ali and his eleven descendants complete the full curriculum of studies to become.. - 1736 died, but small communities also are found in Kordestan and.! 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